Philosophy in West | Category

George Berkeley | Philosophy & Biography | Index

George Berkeley (1685 –1753) George Berkeley is one of the greatest and most influential Western philosophers of the early modern period: Below you can read some works of the George Berkeley himself and some articles on his biography and philosophical views, known as Immaterialism or Subjective Idealism, postulating that nothing exists outside of the consciousness. Along the way, he made influential proposals concerning the psychology,...

René Descartes | Discourse on the Method

René Descartes (31 March 1596 – 11 February 1650) was a French philosopher, mathematician, and scientist. Considered one of the fathers of modern western philosophy, much of subsequent Western philosophy is a response to his writings, which are studied closely to this day. One of his fundamental works was Discourse on the Method which we will read on the following pages. Basic maxim of the...

Perpetual Peace | Immanuel Kant

Perpetual Peace by Immanuel Kant (22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) A Philosophical Essay, 1795. The Definitive Articles of a Perpetual Peace between States I. ‘The Civil Constitution in every State shall be Republican.’ II. ‘The Right of Nations shall be founded on a Federation of Free States.’ III. ‘The Rights of men as Citizens of the world in a cosmo-political system, shall be restricted to conditions of universal Hospitality.’