Ancient Greece | Philosophy & Religion

Ancient Greece Map
Greek Philosophy

Ancient Greek philosophy arose in the 6th century BC. Philosophy was used to make sense of the world using reason. It dealt with a wide variety of subjects, including astronomy, epistemology, mathematics, political philosophy, ethics, metaphysics, ontology, logic, biology, rhetoric and aesthetics. Greek philosophy was influenced to some extent by the older wisdom literature and mythological cosmogonies of the ancient Near East. Influenced Western thought.

Arete (ἀρετή)

A "great-souled" citizen who lives a life of virtue can expect to achieve eudaimonia, which Aristotle argues is the highest good for man. While Greek moral thought was originally based on mythology, which provided moral meaning but no comprehensive framework, from 600s BCE a new moral approach emerged which used rational arguments instead, leading to the rise of philosophy as a distinct mode of thought.

Ancient Greek Religion

Ancient Greek religion encompasses the collection of beliefs, rituals, and mythology originating in ancient Greece, described by poets. Most ancient Greeks recognized the 12 major Olympian gods and goddesses—Zeus, Hera, Poseidon, Demeter, Athena, Ares, Aphrodite, Apollo, Artemis, Hephaestus, Hermes, and either Hestia or Dionysus—although philosophies such as Stoicism and some forms of Platonism used language that seems to assume a single transcendent deity.


Ancient Greek Philosophical Concepts & Terminology is explained in articles and collected in this Folder. Many philosophical, religious and scientific terms & concepts have come down to our times, often keeping their Greek names & philosophical tradition associated with those terms & concepts, which is important to know to better understand the history of philosophy, religion , science and contemporary usage & developments.