Stoicism | Stoic Philosophy

Sage | Sophos

This is a Folder for articles on Biographies of classic Stoicism Philosophers. Scholars usually divide the history of Stoicism into 3 phases: Early Stoa, from Zeno's founding to Antipater, Middle Stoa, including Panaetius and Posidonius, Late Stoa, including Musonius Rufus, Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius. No complete works survived from the first 2 phases of Stoicism. Only Roman texts from the Late Stoa survived.

Philosophy Writings & Books

This is a Folder for articles on Writings of classic Stoicism Philosophers from Later Stoa. Here you can read online the philosophical works of Musonius Rufus, Seneca, Epictetus, and Marcus Aurelius, including Discourses by Epictetus, Moral letters to Lucilius by Seneca the Younger, Meditations of Roman Emperor Marcus Aurelius, the Lectures of Musonius Rufus and similar works of Stoicism Philosophy to attain wisdom.

Greek Philosophy

Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC. The Stoics identified the path for Stoic Sage to Eudaimonia with a life spent practicing the cardinal virtues and living in accordance with Nature. Stoics thought the best indication of an individual's philosophy was not what a person said but how a person behaved.