Eudaimonia | Happiness

Eudaimonia | Happiness
Eudaimonia | Happiness

1. Eudaimonia

Eudaimonia (εὐδαιμονία) is a Greek word literally translating to the state or condition of 'good spirit', and which is commonly translated as 'happiness'.

In the works of Aristotle, Eudaimonia was the term for the highest human good in older Greek tradition.

It is the aim of practical philosophy, including Ethics and political philosophy, to consider as well as experience what it really is, and how it can be achieved.

It is thus a central concept in Aristotelian Ethics and subsequent Hellenistic philosophy, along with the terms Arete (often translated as 'virtue' or 'excellence') and phronēsis ('practical or ethical wisdom').

Discussion of the links between Ēthikē Arete (virtue of character) and Eudaimonia (happiness) is one of the central concerns of ancient Ethics, and a subject of much disagreement.

As a result, there are many varieties of Eudaimonism.

2. Definition and etymology

In terms of its etymology, Eudaimonia is an abstract noun derived from the words eu ('good, well') and daimon ('dispenser, tutelary deity'), the latter referring maybe to a minor deity or a guardian spirit.

Semantically speaking, the word δαίμων (daimon) derives from the same root of the Ancient Greek verb δαίομαι (daiomai, to divide) allowing to rethink the following concept of Eudaimonia as an activity linked with dividing or dispensing, in a good way.

Definitions, a dictionary of Greek philosophical terms attributed to Plato himself but believed by modern scholars to have been written by his immediate followers in the Academy, provides the following definition of the word Eudaimonia:

The good composed of all goods; an ability which suffices for living well; perfection in respect of virtue; resources sufficient for a living creature.

In his Nicomachean Ethics (§21), Aristotle says that everyone agrees that Eudaimonia is the highest good for humans, but that there is substantial disagreement on what sort of life counts as doing and living well; i.e. Eudaimon:

Verbally there is a very general agreement; for both the general run of men and people of superior refinement say that it is Eudaimonia, and identify living well and faring well with being happy;

but with regard to what Eudaimonia is they differ, and the many do not give the same account as the wise. For the former think it is some plain and obvious thing like pleasure, wealth or honour...

So, as Aristotle points out, saying that Eudaimon life is a life which is objectively desirable, and means living well, is not saying very much:

Everyone wants to be Eudaimon; and everyone agrees that being Eudaimon is related to faring well and to an individual's well-being.

The really difficult question is to specify just what sort of activities enable one to live well.

Aristotle presents various popular conceptions of the best life for human beings. The candidates that he mentions are:

  1. a life of pleasure,
  2. a life of political activity,
  3. a philosophical life.

One important move in Greek philosophy to answer the question of how to achieve Eudaimonia is to bring in another important concept in ancient philosophy, Arete ('virtue').

Aristotle says that the Eudaimon life is one of virtuous activity in accordance with reason;

even Epicurus, who argues that the Eudaimon life is the life of pleasure, maintains that the life of pleasure coincides with the life of virtue.

So, the ancient ethical theorists tend to agree that virtue is closely bound up with happiness (Arete is bound up with Eudaimonia).

However, they disagree on the way in which this is so.

3. Socrates

What is known of Socrates' philosophy is almost entirely derived from Plato's writings.

Scholars typically divide Plato's works into 3 periods: the early, middle, and late periods.

They tend to agree also that Plato's earliest works quite faithfully represent the teachings of Socrates and that Plato's own views, which go beyond those of Socrates, appear for the first time in the middle works such as the Phaedo and the Republic.

As with all ancient ethical thinkers, Socrates thought that all human beings wanted Eudaimonia more than anything else (see Plato, Apology, Euthydemus, Meno).

However, Socrates adopted a quite radical form of Eudaimonism: he seems to have thought that virtue is both necessary and sufficient for Eudaimonia.

Socrates is convinced that virtues such as self-control, courage, justice, piety, wisdom and related qualities of mind and soul are absolutely crucial if a person is to lead a good and happy (Eudaimon) life.

Virtues guarantee a happy life Eudaimonia.

For example, in the Meno, with respect to wisdom, he says:

everything the soul endeavours or endures under the guidance of wisdom ends in happiness

/Plato, Meno/

In the Apology, Socrates clearly presents his disagreement with those who think that the Eudaimon life is the life of honour or pleasure, when he chastises the Athenians for caring more for riches and honour than the state of their Souls.

Good Sir, you are an Athenian, a citizen of the greatest city with the greatest reputation for both wisdom and power;

are you not ashamed of your eagerness to possess as much wealth, reputation, and honours as possible, while you do not care for nor give thought to wisdom or truth or the best possible state of your soul.

... It does not seem like human nature for me to have neglected all my own affairs and to have tolerated this neglect for so many years

while I was always concerned with you, approaching each one of you like a father or an elder brother to persuade you to care for virtue.

It emerges a bit further on that this concern for one's soul, that one's soul might be in the best possible state, amounts to acquiring moral virtue.

So Socrates' pointing out that the Athenians should care for their souls means that they should care for their virtue, rather than pursuing honour or riches.

Virtues are states of the soul. When a soul has been properly cared for and perfected it possesses the virtues.

Moreover, according to Socrates, this state of the soul, moral virtue, is the most important good. The health of the soul is incomparably more important for Eudaimonia than (e.g.) wealth and political power.

Someone with a virtuous soul is better off than someone who is wealthy and honoured but whose soul is corrupted by unjust actions.

This view is confirmed in the Crito, where Socrates gets Crito to agree that the perfection of the soul, virtue, is the most important good:

And is life worth living for us with that part of us corrupted that unjust action harms and just action benefits?

Or do we think that part of us, whatever it is, that is concerned with justice and injustice, is inferior to the body?

- Not at all. It is much more valuable...? Much more...

Here, Socrates argues that life is not worth living if the soul is ruined by wrongdoing.

In summary, Socrates seems to think that virtue is both necessary and sufficient for Eudaimonia.

A person who is not virtuous cannot be happy, and a person with virtue cannot fail to be happy. We shall see later on that Stoic ethics takes its cue from this Socratic insight.

4. Plato

Plato's great work of the middle period, the Republic, is devoted to answering a challenge made by the sophist Thrasymachus, that conventional morality, particularly the 'virtue' of justice, actually prevents the strong man from achieving Eudaimonia.

Thrasymachus' views are restatements of a position which Plato discusses earlier on in his writings, in the Gorgias, through the mouthpiece of Callicles.

The basic argument presented by Thrasymachus and Callicles is that justice (being just) hinders or prevents the achievement of Eudaimonia because conventional morality requires that we control ourselves and hence live with un-satiated desires.

This idea is vividly illustrated in book 2 of the Republic when Glaucon, taking up Thrasymachus' challenge, recounts a myth of the magical ring of Gyges:

According to the myth, Gyges becomes king of Lydia when he stumbles upon a magical ring, which, when he turns it a particular way, makes him invisible, so that he can satisfy any desire he wishes without fear of punishment.

When he discovers the power of the ring he kills the king, marries his wife and takes over the throne.

The thrust of Glaucon's challenge is that no one would be just if he could escape the retribution he would normally encounter for fulfilling his desires at whim.

But if Eudaimonia is to be achieved through the satisfaction of desire, whereas being just or acting justly requires suppression of desire, then it is not in the interests of the strong man to act according to the dictates of conventional morality:

(This general line of argument reoccurs much later in the philosophy of Nietzsche.)

Throughout the rest of the Republic, Plato aims to refute this claim by showing that the virtue of justice is necessary for Eudaimonia.

The argument of the Republic is lengthy and complex:

In brief, Plato argues that virtues are states of the soul, and that the just person is someone whose soul is ordered and harmonious, with all its parts functioning properly to the person's benefit.

In contrast, Plato argues that the unjust man's soul, without the virtues, is chaotic and at war with itself, so that even if he were able to satisfy most of his desires, his lack of inner harmony and unity thwart any chance he has of achieving Eudaimonia.

Plato's ethical theory is Eudaimonic because it maintains that Eudaimonia depends on virtue.

On Plato's version of the relationship, virtue is depicted as the most crucial and the dominant constituent of Eudaimonia.

5. Aristotle

Aristotle's account is articulated in the Nicomachean Ethics and the Eudemian Ethics.

In outline, for Aristotle, Eudaimonia involves activity, exhibiting virtue (Arete, sometimes translated as excellence) in accordance with reason.

This conception of Eudaimonia derives from Aristotle's essentialist understanding of human nature,

the view that reason (logos) is unique to human beings and that the ideal function or work of a human being is the fullest or most perfect exercise of reason.

Basically, well-being (Eudaimonia) is gained by proper development of one's highest and most human capabilities and human beings are the rational animal.

It follows that Eudaimonia for a human being is the attainment of excellence (Arete) in reason.

According to Aristotle, Eudaimonia actually requires activity, action, so that it is not sufficient for a person to possess a squandered ability or disposition.

Eudaimonia requires not only good character but rational activity.

Aristotle clearly maintains that to live in accordance with reason means achieving excellence thereby.

Moreover, he claims this excellence cannot be isolated and so competencies are also required appropriate to related functions.

For example, if being a truly outstanding scientist requires impressive math skills, one might say doing mathematics well is necessary to be a first rate scientist.

From this it follows that Eudaimonia, living well, consists in activities exercising the rational part of the psyche in accordance with the virtues or excellency of reason.

Which is to say, to be fully engaged in the intellectually stimulating and fulfilling work at which one achieves well-earned success.

The rest of the Nicomachean Ethics is devoted to filling out the claim that the best life for a human being is the life of excellence in accordance with reason.

Since Reason for Aristotle is not only theoretical but practical as well, he spends quite a bit of time discussing excellence of character, which enables a person to exercise his practical reason (i.e., reason relating to action) successfully.

Aristotle's ethical theory is Eudaimonic because it maintains that Eudaimonia depends on virtue.

However, it is Aristotle's explicit view that virtue is necessary but not sufficient for Eudaimonia.

While emphasizing the importance of the rational aspect of the psyche, he does not ignore the importance of other 'goods' such as friends, wealth, and power in a life that is Eudaimonic.

He doubts the likelihood of being Eudaimonic if one lacks certain external goods such as 'good birth, good children, and beauty'.

So, a person who is hideously ugly or has lost children or good friends through death, or who is isolated, is unlikely to be Eudaimon:

In this way, dumb luck (chance) can pre-empt one's attainment of Eudaimonia.

6. Pyrrho

Pyrrho was the founder of Pyrrhonism.

A summary of his approach to Eudaimonia was preserved by Eusebius, quoting Aristocles of Messene, quoting Timon of Phlius, in what is known as the Aristocles passage.

Whoever wants Eudaimonia must consider these 3 questions:

1) How are pragmata (ethical matters, affairs, topics) by nature?
2) What attitude should we adopt towards them?
3) What will be the outcome for those who have this attitude?

Pyrrho's answer is that:

As for pragmata they are all:

  1. adiaphora (undifferentiated by a logical differentia),
  2. astathmēta (unstable, unbalanced, not measurable),
  3. anepikrita (unjudged, unfixed, undecidable).

Therefore, neither our sense-perceptions nor our doxai (views, theories, beliefs) tell us the truth or lie; so we certainly should not rely on them.

Rather, we should be:

  1. adoxastoi (without views),
  2. aklineis (uninclined toward this side or that),
  3. akradantoi (unwavering in our refusal to choose),

saying about every single one that it no more is than it is not or it both is and is not or it neither is nor is not.

With respect to Arete, the Pyrrhonist philosopher Sextus Empiricus said:

If one defines a system as an attachment to a number of dogmas that agree with one another and with appearances, and defines a dogma as an assent to something non-evident, we shall say that the Pyrrhonist does not have a system.

But if one says that a system is a way of life that, in accordance with appearances, follows a certain rationale, where that rationale shows how it is possible to seem to live rightly and tends to produce the disposition to suspend judgment, then we say that he does have a system.

/Sextus Empiricus Outlines of Pyrrhonism Book I Ch. 8/

7. Epicurus

Epicurus' ethical theory is hedonistic:

Epicurus identifies the good life with the life of pleasure.

He understands Eudaimonia as a more or less continuous experience of pleasure and, also, freedom from pain and distress.

But it is important to notice that Epicurus does not advocate that one pursue any and every pleasure. Rather, he recommends a policy whereby pleasures are maximized in the long run.

In other words, Epicurus claims that some pleasures are not worth having because they lead to greater pains, and some pains are worthwhile when they lead to greater pleasures.

The best strategy for attaining a maximal amount of pleasure overall is not to seek instant gratification but to work out a sensible long term policy.

Ancient Greek ethics is Eudaimonic because it links Virtue and Eudaimonia, where Eudaimonia refers to an individual's well-being.

Epicurus' doctrine can be considered Eudaimonic since Epicurus argues that a life of pleasure will coincide with a life of virtue.

He believes that we do and ought to seek Virtue because virtue brings pleasure.

Epicurus' basic doctrine is that a life of Virtue is the life which generates the most amount of pleasure, and it is for this reason that we ought to be virtuous.

This thesis—the Eudaimon life is the pleasurable life—is not a tautology as Eudaimonia is the good life would be: rather, it is the substantive and controversial claim that a life of pleasure and absence of pain is what Eudaimonia consists in.

One important difference between Epicurus' Eudaimonism and that of Plato and Aristotle is that for the latter virtue is a constituent of Eudaimonia, whereas Epicurus makes virtue a means to happiness.

To this difference, consider Aristotle's theory:

Aristotle maintains that Eudaimonia is what everyone wants (and Epicurus would agree).

He also thinks that Eudaimonia is best achieved by a life of virtuous activity in accordance with reason.

The virtuous person takes pleasure in doing the right thing as a result of a proper training of moral and intellectual character (See e.g., Nicomachean Ethics).

However, Aristotle does not think that virtuous activity is pursued for the sake of pleasure.

Pleasure is a by-product of virtuous action: it does not enter at all into the reasons why virtuous action is virtuous. Aristotle does not think that we literally aim for Eudaimonia.

Rather, Eudaimonia is what we achieve (assuming that we aren't particularly unfortunate in the possession of external goods) when we live according to the requirements of reason.

Virtue is the largest constituent in a Eudaimonic life.

By contrast, Epicurus holds that virtue is the means to achieve happiness:

His theory is Eudaimonic in that he holds that virtue is indispensable to happiness; but virtue is not a constituent of a Eudaimonic life, and being virtuous is not (external goods aside) identical with being Eudaimonic.

Rather, according to Epicurus, virtue is only instrumentally related to happiness.

So whereas Aristotle would not say that one ought to aim for virtue in order to attain pleasure, Epicurus would endorse this claim.

8. The Stoics

Stoic philosophy begins with Zeno of Citium c. 300 BC, and was developed by Cleanthes (331–232 BC) and Chrysippus (c. 280–c. 206 BC) into a formidable systematic unity.

Zeno believed happiness was a good flow of life; Cleanthes suggested it was living in agreement with nature, and Chrysippus believed it was living in accordance with experience of what happens by nature.

Stoic Ethics is a particularly strong version of Eudaimonism:

According to the Stoics, virtue is necessary and sufficient for Eudaimonia. (This thesis is generally regarded as stemming from the Socrates of Plato's earlier dialogues.)

We saw earlier that the conventional Greek concept of Arete is not quite the same as that denoted by virtue, which has Christian connotations of charity, patience, and uprightness, since Arete includes many non-moral virtues such as physical strength and beauty.

However, the Stoic concept of Arete is much nearer to the Christian conception of virtue, which refers to the moral virtues.

However, unlike Christian understandings of virtue, righteousness or piety,

the Stoic conception does not place as great an emphasis on mercy, forgiveness, self-abasement, charity and self-sacrificial love, though these behaviours/mentalities are not necessarily spurned by the Stoics.

Rather Stoicism emphasizes states such as justice, honesty, moderation, simplicity, self-discipline, resolve, fortitude, and courage (states which Christianity also encourages).

The Stoics make a radical claim that the Eudaimonic life is the morally virtuous life.

Moral virtue is good, and moral vice is bad, and everything else, such as health, honour and riches, are merely neutral.

The Stoics therefore are committed to saying that external goods such as wealth and physical beauty are not really good at all.

Moral virtue is both necessary and sufficient for Eudaimonia.

In this, they are akin to Cynic philosophers such as Antisthenes and Diogenes in denying the importance to Eudaimonia of external goods and circumstances,

such as were recognized by Aristotle, who thought that severe misfortune (such as the death of one's family and friends) could rob even the most virtuous person of Eudaimonia.

This Stoic doctrine re-emerges later in the history of ethical philosophy in the writings of Immanuel Kant, who argues that the possession of a good will is the only unconditional good.

One difference is that whereas the Stoics regard external goods as neutral, as neither good nor bad, Kant's position seems to be that external goods are good, but only so far as they are a condition to achieving happiness.

9. Modern Moral Philosophy

Interest in the concept of Eudaimonia and ancient ethical theory more generally had a revival in the 20th century.

G. E. M. Anscombe in her article Modern Moral Philosophy (1958) argued that duty-based conceptions of morality are conceptually incoherent for they are based on the idea of a law without a lawgiver.

She claims a system of morality conceived along the lines of the 10 Commandments depends on someone having made these rules.

Anscombe recommends a return to the Eudaimonic ethical theories of the ancients, particularly Aristotle, which ground morality in the interests and well-being of human moral agents, and can do so without appealing to any such lawgiver.

Anscombe's article Modern Moral Philosophy stimulated the development of Virtue Ethics as an alternative to Utilitarianism, Kantian Ethics, and Social Contract theories.

Her primary charge in the article is that, as secular approaches to moral theory, they are without foundation.

They use concepts such as morally ought, morally obligated, morally right, and so forth that are legalistic and require a legislator as the source of moral authority.

In the past God occupied that role, but systems that dispense with God as part of the theory are lacking the proper foundation for meaningful employment of those concepts.