Stoic Biographies | Stoicism

Zeno of Citium

Zeno of Citium (c. 334 – c. 262 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher from Citium (Κίτιον), Cyprus. Zeno was the founder of the Stoic school of philosophy, which he taught in Athens from about 300 BC. Stoicism laid great emphasis on goodness and peace of mind gained from living a life of virtue in accordance with nature. Zeno learned from Cynics.

Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger (c. 4 BC – AD 65), usually known as Seneca, was a Roman Stoic philosopher, statesman, dramatist, and, in one work, satirist, from the post-Augustan age of Latin literature. As "a major philosophical figure of the Roman Imperial Period", Seneca's lasting contribution to philosophy has been to the school of Stoicism. Seneca wrote a number of books on Stoicism.

Epictetus | Stoic

Epictetus (c. 50 – c. 135 AD) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. Epictetus taught that philosophy is a way of life and not simply a theoretical discipline. To Epictetus, all external events are beyond our control; we should accept whatever happens calmly and dispassionately. His teachings were written down and published by his pupil Arrian in his Discourses and Enchiridion. Epictetus was born in slavery

Musonius Rufus | Stoic

Gaius Musonius Rufus was a Roman Stoic philosopher of the 1st century AD. His philosophy consists entirely of the rules for the conduct of life; all knowledge ought to be serviceable to action. He is also remembered for being the teacher of Epictetus and Dio Chrysostom. His philosophy is in many respects identical with that of his pupil, Epictetus, marked by a strong practical tendency.

Marcus Aurelius | Meditations

Marcus Aurelius Antoninus (26 April 121 – 17 March 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to 180 and a Stoic philosopher. Marcus Aurelius wrote the 12 books of the Meditations in Greek as a source for his own guidance and self-improvement. Meditations, the writings of "the philosopher" – as contemporary biographers called Marcus – are a significant source of the modern understanding of ancient Stoic philosophy.