Aristotle | Biography

Aristotle (384–322 BC)
Aristotle (384–322 BC)


Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece.

Taught by Plato, he was the founder of the Lyceum, the Peripatetic school of philosophy, and the Aristotelian tradition.

His writings cover many subjects including physics, biology, zoology, metaphysics, logic, ethics, aesthetics, poetry, theatre, music, rhetoric, psychology, linguistics, economics, politics, meteorology, geology and government.

Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him.

It was above all from his teachings that the West inherited its intellectual lexicon, as well as problems and methods of inquiry.

As a result, his philosophy has exerted a unique influence on almost every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion.

Little is known about his life.

Aristotle was born in the city of Stagira in Northern Greece. His father, Nicomachus, died when Aristotle was a child, and he was brought up by a guardian.

At 17-18 years of age he joined Plato's Academy in Athens and remained there until the age of 37 (c. 347 BC).

Shortly after Plato died, Aristotle left Athens and, at the request of Philip II of Macedon, tutored Alexander the Great beginning in 343 BC.

He established a library in the Lyceum which helped him to produce many of his hundreds of books on papyrus scrolls.

Though Aristotle wrote many elegant treatises and dialogues for publication, only around a third of his original output has survived, none of it intended for publication.

Aristotle's views profoundly shaped Medieval scholarship.

The influence of physical science extended from Late Antiquity and the Early Middle Ages into the Renaissance, and were not replaced systematically until the Enlightenment and theories such as classical mechanics were developed.

Some of Aristotle's zoological observations found in his biology, such as on the hectocotyl (reproductive) arm of the octopus, were believed until the 19th century.

He also influenced Judeo-Islamic philosophies (800–1400) during the Middle Ages, as well as Christian theology, especially the Neo-Platonism of the Early Church and the scholastic tradition of the Catholic Church.

Aristotle was revered among medieval Muslim scholars as The First Teacher, and among medieval Christians like Thomas Aquinas as simply The Philosopher, while the poet Dante called him the master of those who know.

His works contain the earliest known formal study of Logic, and were studied by medieval scholars such as Peter Abelard and Jean Buridan.

Aristotle's influence on logic continued well into the 19th century.

In addition, his Ethics, though always influential, gained renewed interest with the modern advent of Virtue Ethics.

Aristotle has been called the father of logic, the father of biology, the father of political science, the father of zoology, the father of embryology,

the father of natural law, the father of scientific method, the father of rhetoric, the father of psychology, the father of realism, the father of criticism, the father of individualism, the father of teleology, and the father of meteorology.


In general, the details of Aristotle's life are not well-established. The biographies written in ancient times are often speculative and historians only agree on a few salient points.

Aristotle, whose name means the best purpose in Ancient Greek, was born in 384 BC in Stagira, Chalcidice, about 55 km east of modern-day Thessaloniki.

His father, Nicomachus, was the personal physician to King Amyntas of Macedon.

While he was young, Aristotle learned about biology and medical information, which was taught by his father.

Both of Aristotle's parents died when he was about 13, and Proxenus of Atarneus became his guardian.

Although little information about Aristotle's childhood has survived, he probably spent some time within the Macedonian palace, making his first connections with the Macedonian monarchy.

At the age of 17-18, Aristotle moved to Athens to continue his education at Plato's Academy.

He probably experienced the Eleusinian Mysteries as he wrote when describing the sights one viewed at the Eleusinian Mysteries, to experience is to learn.

Aristotle remained in Athens for nearly 20 years before leaving in 348/47 BC.

The traditional story about his departure records that he was disappointed with the academy's direction after control passed to Plato's nephew Speusippus,

although it is possible that he feared the anti-Macedonian sentiments in Athens at that time and left before Plato died.

Aristotle then accompanied Xenocrates to the court of his friend Hermias of Atarneus in Asia Minor.

After the death of Hermias, Aristotle travelled with his pupil Theophrastus to the island of Lesbos, where together they researched the botany and zoology of the island and its sheltered lagoon.

While in Lesbos, Aristotle married Pythias, either Hermias's adoptive daughter or niece. She bore him a daughter, whom they also named Pythias.

In 343 BC, Aristotle was invited by Philip II of Macedon to become the tutor to his son Alexander.

Aristotle was appointed as the head of the Royal Academy of Macedon.

During Aristotle's time in the Macedonian court, he gave lessons not only to Alexander but also to 2 other future kings: Ptolemy and Cassander.

Aristotle encouraged Alexander toward eastern conquest, and Aristotle's own attitude towards Persia was unabashedly ethnocentric.

In one famous example, he counsels Alexander to be a leader to the Greeks and a despot to the barbarians, to look after the former as after friends and relatives, and to deal with the latter as with beasts or plants.

By 335 BC, Aristotle had returned to Athens, establishing his own school there known as the Lyceum. Aristotle conducted courses at the school for the next 12 years.

While in Athens, his wife Pythias died and Aristotle became involved with Herpyllis of Stagira, who bore him a son whom he named after his father, Nicomachus.

This period in Athens, between 335 and 323 BC, is when Aristotle is believed to have composed many of his works.

He wrote many dialogues, of which only fragments have survived.

Those works that have survived are in treatise form and were not, for the most part, intended for widespread publication; they are generally thought to be lecture aids for his students.

His most important treatises include Physics, Metaphysics, Nicomachean Ethics, Politics, On the Soul and Poetics.

Aristotle studied and made significant contributions to logic, metaphysics, mathematics, physics, biology, botany, ethics, politics, agriculture, medicine, dance, and theatre.

Near the end of his life, Alexander and Aristotle became estranged over Alexander's relationship with Persia and Persians.

A widespread tradition in antiquity suspected Aristotle of playing a role in Alexander's death, but the only evidence of this is an unlikely claim made some 6 years after the death.

Following Alexander's death, anti-Macedonian sentiment in Athens was rekindled.

In 322 BC, Demophilus and Eurymedon the Hierophant reportedly denounced Aristotle for impiety, prompting him to flee to his mother's family estate in Chalcis, on Euboea,

at which occasion he was said to have stated: I will not allow the Athenians to sin twice against philosophy – a reference to Athens's trial and execution of Socrates.

He died on Euboea of natural causes later that same year, having named his student Antipater as his chief executor and leaving a will in which he asked to be buried next to his wife.