Ancient Greek Philosophy

Ancient Greece Map
Socrates | Know thyself

Why did his pupils reverence Socrates so? Perhaps because he was a man as well as a philosopher: he had at great risk saved the life of Alcibiades in battle; and he could drink like a gentleman—without fear and without excess. But no doubt they liked best in him the modesty of his wisdom: he did not claim to have wisdom, but only to seek

Plato (c. 428 – 348 BC) | Dialogues | Index

Plato (c. 428 – 348 BC) | Dialogues | Index. Here you can read online the works of one of the most influential and important Philosopher of the Ancient Greece Plato. Without studies of Plato it may be very difficult to understand later Western Idealistic philosophies, including those of Christianity and especially those of Eastern Orthodox Christianity - they all have developed under influence of

Milesian School Philosophy | Thales, Anaximander, Anaximenes

It was not accidental that the first Western Philosophers, pre-Socratics were citizens of Miletus, a prosperous trading centre of Ionian Greeks on the Asiatic coast, where Greek and Oriental cultures met and mingled. The Milesian heritage included the myths and religious beliefs of their own people and their Eastern neighbours and also the store of Egyptian and Babylonian knowledge. For the Greeks knowledge became an,

Pythagoras and Early Pythagoreanism

Pythagoras and Early Pythagoreanism: Pythagoras was born on the island of Samos in the eastern Aegean sometime around 570 BCE. Eventually, Pythagoras settled in Croton, in southern Italy: There he was well-respected and gained political influence. He founded a community for himself and his followers that was philosophical, political, and religious. In about 500 there was an uprising in Croton (and elsewhere in Italy) against the Pythagoreans.

Six Enneads | Plotinus

Plotinus (c. 204-270) is often accredited as the founder of Neo-Platonism. In an attempt to revive Platonic thought, this 3rd century philosopher and mystic wrote about issues such as virtue, happiness, reason, body, and soul, with Plato's philosophy as his guide. Plotinus located the source of creation in a supreme ‘One’. Plotinus believed this "One" transcended being, non-being, multiplicity and division.

Aristotle (384–322 BC)

Aristotle (Ἀριστοτέλης, 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher and polymath during the Classical period in Ancient Greece. Aristotle provided a complex synthesis of the various philosophies existing prior to him. As a result, Aristotle’s philosophy has exerted a unique influence on almost every form of knowledge in the West and it continues to be a subject of contemporary philosophical discussion.


A Sophist (σοφιστής) was a Teacher in ancient Greece in the 5th-4th centuries BC. The word has gradually come to connote general Wisdom and especially wisdom in human affairs such as politics, ethics, and household management. The early Sophists charged money in exchange for Education and providing Wisdom, and so were typically employed by wealthy people. This practice resulted in the condemnations made by Plato

Stoicism Philosophy

Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early 3rd century BC. The Stoics identified the path for Stoic Sage to Eudaimonia with a life spent practicing the cardinal virtues and living in accordance with Nature. Stoics thought the best indication of an individual's philosophy was not what a person said but how a person behaved.

Cynicism Philosophy

Cynicism (κυνισμός) is a school of thought of ancient Greek philosophy as practiced by the Cynics. For the Cynics, the purpose of life is to live in virtue, in agreement with nature. People can gain happiness by rigorous training and by living in a way which is natural for themselves, rejecting all conventional desires. They were to lead a simple life free from all possessions.

Epicureanism | The Garden

Epicureanism is a system of philosophy founded around 307 BC based upon the teachings of the ancient Greek philosopher Epicurus. Epicurus believed that the greatest good was to seek modest, sustainable pleasure in the form of a state of Ataraxia (tranquillity and freedom from fear) and Aponia (absence of bodily pain) through knowledge of the workings of the world and limiting desires.