Swami Shivananda Saraswati (1887 - 1963)
| Divine Life Society

The Nyāya Introduction The Nyāya or Hindu logic was founded by Gautama Rishi , who is also known by the names Akṣapāda and Dīrghatapas. The Nyāya and the Vaiśeṣika are analytic types of philosophy: The word ‘ Nyāya ’ signifies ‘ going into a subject ’ i.e., investigating it analytically. In this sense of analysis, the word Nyāya is exactly

The Vaiśeṣika Introduction Rishi Kaṇāda is also known by the names, Aulukya and Kaśyapa. The Vaiśeṣika system takes its name from Viśeṣa or particularity which is the characteristic differentia of things. The aphorisms of Kaṇāda contain the essence of the Vaiśeṣika philosophy. The principal subject treated therein is Viśeṣa, one of the six Padārthas or categories enumerated by the founder.

The Sānkhya Introduction Obeisance to Śrī Kapila Muni , the founder of the Sānkhya system of philosophy, the son of Brahma, the Avatara of Vishnu. The word ‘ Sānkhya ’ means ‘ number ’. The system gives an enumeration of the principles of the universe, 25 in number. Hence the name is quite appropriate. The term ‘ Sānkhya ’ is

The Yoga Introduction Prostrations to Śrī Patañjali Mahāṛṣi , the exponent of the R āja Yoga system of philosophy, the first systematiser of the Yoga school, whose ‘ Yoga Sutras ’ is the basic text. The word Yoga comes from the root YUJ which means to join . Yoga is restraint of the activities of the mind, and is the

The Pūrva Mimāṁsa Introduction Adoration to Śrī Jaimini , the founder of the Pūrva Mimāṁsa system, the disciple of Śrī Vyāsa Bhagavan! Pūrva Mimāṁsa or Karma-Mimāṁsa is an enquiry into the earlier portion of the Vedas, an enquiry into the ritual of the Vedas or that portion of the Vedas which is concerned with the Mantras and the Brāhmaṇas only.

The Vedanta Philosophy Also Known as the Uttara Mimāṁsa Introduction Prostrations and adorations to Śrī Vyāsa , the founder of Uttara Mimāṁsa or the Vedanta system of philosophy, Avatara of Lord Vishnu, son of Śrī Parāśara Rishi. Uttara Mimāṁsa or the Vedanta philosophy of Vyāsa or Badarayana is placed as the last of the six orthodox systems, but, really, it

The Śaiva Siddhāṅta Philosophy Introduction In the books that treat of Śaivism , there is a reference to four schools, viz., the Nākulisa Pāśupata, the Śaiva, the Pratyabhijñā and the Rāseśvara. Śaiva Siddhāṅta is the philosophy of Southern Śaivism . It owes its origins to no single author. It is midway between Śankara’s Advaita and Rāmānuja’s Viśishṭādvaita. Its literature consists

The Śaktī Yoga Philosophy Introduction In this system of Śaktī Yoga philosophy, Śiva is omnipresent, impersonal and inactive. He is pure consciousness. Śaktī is dynamic. Śiva and Śaktī are related as Prakāśa and Vimarśa. Śaktī or Vimarśa is the power that is latent in the pure consciousness. Vimarśa gives rise to the world of distinctions. Śiva is Chit . Śaktī